the sup groups ←

chunk 55: lists of tense replacers

→ pronoun tables

lists of tense replacements
liG replacements
Hard flat liG.
Hard flat liG after a.
hard bent liG
Rules that make the hard bent liG.
soft bent liG
Rules that make the soft bent liG.
laT replacements
laG replacements
liT replacements
loT replacements
loT replacement rules
Soft flat liG.
luT terminations.


lists of tense replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1038

laT replacements

laG replacements

loT replacements

liG replacements

liT replacements

luT terminations


liG replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1039

hard flat liG

hard flat liG after a

hard bent liG

soft flat liG

soft bent liG

(Back to lists of tense replacements .)


Hard flat liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1040

When the nine flat tiG replace hard liG, they turn into --

yAt''' yAtAm''' yus'''

yAs''' yAtam''' yAta'''

yAm''' yAva''' yAma'''

But that's only when they are not after a. After a, these start with ey, not yA. See hard flat liG after a .

Examples --

dviS + @hard liG tipdviS + yAt'''dviSyAt "he would hate; may he hate"

zru + znu + @hard liG tipzRNu + tipzRNu + yAt'''zRNuyAt "he would hear; may he hear"

These nine affixes were built this way --

jhi turned into jus by jherjus.

As liG is a Git tense, the same rules that worked in the laG replacements worked here ( itazca, tasthas and nityaGGitaH).

All nine got yA in front because of yAsuTpa (that added yAs) and liGassa (that removed the s).

The yA in front of jus lost its A by usya.

See also soft flat liG .

(Back to liG replacements .)


Hard flat liG after a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1041

When the nine hard flat liG affixes (namely yAt''' yAtAm''' yus''' etc) follow an a, that a and the liG combine into --

et''' etAm''' eyus'''

es''' etam''' eta'''

eyam''' eva''' ema'''

These are made by atoyeyaH and other rules.

Examples with zapclass, zaclass, Nichclass roots --

bhava + yAt'''bhav + et'''bhavet "he would be"

kSipa + yAt'''kSip + et'''kSipet "he would throw"

cintaya + yAs'''cintay + es'''cintayes "you would think"

Beware of the eyam''' thing that replaces a + mip in bhaveyam "I would be". It looks a lot like the eya thing that replaces a + iT' in plaveya "I would jump". See Hard bent liG .

Back to liG replacements .


hard bent liGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1042

The bent tiG affixes, when they replace hard liG, turn into --

Ita''' IyAtAm''' Iran'''

IthAs''' IyAthAm''' Idhvam'''

Iya''' Ivahi''' Imahi'''

(See rules that make the hard bent liG if you're curious.)


dviS + @hard liG tadviS + Ita'''dviSIta "he would hate"

Of course after a we get AdguNaH --

plava + liG taplava + Ita''' AdguNaH plaveta "he would jump"

dviS + karmaNi @hard liG tadviS + yak + tadviSya + Ita''' AdguNaH dviSyeta "he would be hated"

Back to liG replacements .


Rules that make the hard bent liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1043

To make the nine hard bent liG replacements --

Start with the nine taG.

Turn jha into ran, iT' into a' ( jhasyaran, iTot).

Add Iy in front (rule liGassIyuT adds sIyuT, liGassa deletes the s).

Apply lopovyorvali if need be.


soft bent liGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1044

When the taG replace soft liG, they turn into --

sISTa''' sIyAstAm''' sIran'''

sISThAs''' sIyAsthAm''' sIdhvam'''

sIya''' sIvahi''' sImahi'''

(see rules that make the soft bent liG if you are curious)

Example --

plu + @soft liG taplu + sISTa''' hardsoft plo + sISTa''' kric ploSISTa "may he jump"


Rules that make the soft bent liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1045



When the taG affixes --

ta AtAm jha

thAs AthAm dhvam

iT' vahi mahi

replace soft liG, the jha becomes ran by jhasyaran, and iT' becomes a' by iTot --

ta AtAm ran

thAs AthAm dhvam

a' vahi mahi

then rule liGassIyuT adds sIy, and the y disappears when lopovyo says so --

sIta sIyAtAm sIran

sIthAs sIyAthAm sIdhvam

sIya sIvahi sImahi

then rule suTtithoH adds s before t th --

sIsta sIyAstAm sIran

sIsthAs sIyAsthAm sIdhvam

sIya sIvahi sImahi

that s gets kric and STunA if after I --

sISTa sIyAstAm sIran

sISThAs sIyAsthAm sIdhvam

sIya sIvahi sImahi

As all nine start with s, a val letter, they may get iT by ArdhadhAtukasyeD, unlike the other liG. If they get iT the s will get kric. Otherwise, the s will maybe get kric, depending on what's it after.

Additionally, the dh if sIdhvam might become Dh by iNaSSI.

Unlike the other twenty-seven liG, these nine have no G label. Therefore they may make the root get hardsoft or puganta.


laT replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1046

When the flat tiG replace laT, they stay unchanged --

tip tas jhi

sip thas tha

mip vas mas

The bent, however, turn into --

te''' Ate''' jhe'''

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''

The jhi and jhe will be replaced

either with anti''' ante''' by rule jhontaH

or with ati''' ate''' by the two rules below jhontaH

The bents were changed by rules Tita and thAsasse.

(Back to lists of tense replacements .)


laG replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1047

When the flat tiG affixes replace laG, they are affected by tasthas, itazca or nityaGGitaH, and turn into --

t''' tAm''' jh'''

s''' tam''' ta'''

am''' va''' ma'''

The jh''' affix will turn into ant''' or into at''' by rules jhontaH ff. That ant''' always loses its t by saMyogAnta.

The bent tiG affixes that replace laG, however, stay unchanged --

ta AtAm jha

thAs AthAm dhvam

iT' vahi mahi

The jha will turn into anta''' or into ata''' by rules jhontaH ff.

Back to lists of tense replacements .


liT replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1048

When the flat replace liT, rule Nalatusus turns them into --

Nal atus us

thal athus a

Nal va ma

The bent, by rules irec and Tita, turn into --

ez Ate''' irec

se''' Athe''' dhve'''

e''' vahe''' mahe'''


loT replacementsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1049

When loT is replaced with the eighteen tiG, they turn into --

tu''' tAm''' jhu'''

hi''' tam''' ta'''

Ani''' Ava''' Ama'''

tAm'''' AtAm'''' jhAm''''

sva''' AthAm'''' dhvam''''

ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

Of course, because of jhontaH and its two exceptions,

jhu''' will turn into antu''' or atu''',

and jhAm'''' into antAm'''' or atAm''''.

(Back to lists of tense replacements .)


loT replacement rulesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1050

The eighteen loT replacements are made by these rules --

ADuttamasyapicca makes the A of Ani''' Ava''' Ama''' Avahai''' Amahai''', and makes them pit

AmetaH makes tAm'''' jhAm'''' AtAm'''' AthAm''''

eruH makes tu''' jhu'''

eta::ai makes the ai of ai''' Avahai''' Amahai'''

loTolaGvat makes Ava''' Ama''' tAm''' tam''' ta'''

merniH makes Ani'''

savAbhyAMvAmau makes sva''' and dhvam''''

serhyapicca makes hi''', and makes it apit


Soft flat liG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1051

The nine flat tiG, when they replace soft liG, turn into --

yAt'''' yAstAm''' yAsus'''

yAs'''' yAstam''' yAsta'''

yAsam''' yAsva''' yAsma'''

Examples --

bhU + @soft liG mip → .. → bhU + yAsam'''bhUyAsam "may I be"

(Back to lists of tense replacements .)

ayuSmatI bhUyAH "may you become long-lived"

saraTI bhUyAH "may you turn into a lizard"

hard liG -- dviSyAt bhavet zRNuyAt

soft liG -- dviSyAt bhUyAt zrUyAt


luT terminations.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1052

You will find the following eighteen things at the end of luT verbs. They are made of tAs joined with each the eighteen tiG. For instance, the first tA in the list is tAs + tip, and the other tA is made from tAs + ta, snd the last tAsmahe is tAs + mahi.


tA tArau tAras

tAsi tAsthas tAstha

tAsmi tAsvas tAsmas


tA tArau tAras

tAse tAsAthe tAdhve

tAhe tAsvahe tAsmahe

These eighteen are the affix tAs joined to the eighteen tiptasjhi affixes.




and these rules change the tAs --





Also, as tAs is a valAdi soft, it will get iT sometimes --

budh + tAs + tip luTaH budh + tA ArdhadhAtukasyeD budh + itA puganta bodhitA "will realize"

and if it doesn't get iT, the t will be right after the root, maybe triggering rules such as jhaSas ta;thor dho 'dhaH or kharica --

budh + tA jhaSastatho bud + dhA puganta boddhA "will realize"

chid + tAras kharica chit + tAras puganta chettAras "they will split"

The root combines with tAs in the same way it combines with tavya tRc tumun, also valAdi softs --

budh + tavyaboddhitavya- "that must be realized"

chid + tRcchettR- "splitter"

the sup groups ←

chunk 55: lists of tense replacers

→ pronoun tables