32134 habitual doer affixes, future time ←

chunk 22: 33156 liG and loT

→ 34067 kartari karmaNi

33156 liG means future cause and effect . hetuhetumatorliG
33161 liG means command, advice, invitation, wish, question, request, prayer. vidhinimantraNAmantraNAdhISTasampraznaprArthaneSuliG
33162 The loT too . loTca
33173 Use liG or loT to mean a wish. AziSiliGloTau
33175 When there is mAG, use luG. mAGiluG
33176 After sma, laG too. smottarelaGca
34007 leT has liG meaning liGartheleT
34018 Optionally use ktvA with alam khalu to mean "stop doing". alaGkhalvoHpratiSedhayoHprAcAGktvA
34021 Of two with same doer, means what happens first. samAnakartRkayoHpUrvakAle
34022 Namul mean repetition. AbhIkSNyeNamulca


hetu-hetumator liG ONPANINI 33156
liG means future cause and effect (optionally).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 337

Roughly translated:

"you may use liG in future if-then sentence pairs".

Example --

yadi bhRzaM varSet su-bhikSamM bhavet "if it rains plentifully, there will be lots of food"

apatiSyaJ cet sUkarAs tat spardhAyAm ajeSyAma "we'll win the match if pigs will fly"

Yet, many ignore that restriction and use the liG for those too --

yadA sUkarAH pateyus tadA spardhAyAJM jayema "we'll win the match when pigs fly" ( bad grammar here )

varSatIti dhAvati "she's running because it's raining"


vidhi;nimantraN'; .AmantraN%AdhISTa; samprazna;prArthaneSu liG ONPANINI 33161
liG means command, advice, invitation, wish, question, request, prayer.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 338 tense

The liG tense is almost always hard (rule tiGzit says so).

When it is hard, it is used in many senses, some of which are also often expressed with the loT, and one of them with the lRG.

Example of command --

bhavAn AsIta "would you sit?, please sit!"

gacchet "let him go; tell him to go"

Example of wish --

gacchet "may he go"

When the liG tense means a wish of the speaker, it is sometimes soft. See soft liG for examples. This soft liG is only used for wishes. You should use the hard liG (or the loT) for wishes however, as the soft liG, though perfectly grammatical, is a "thou speakest" sort of thing.

Back to tenses.


loT ca ONPANINI 33162
The loT too (means command, advice, invitation, wish, question, request, prayer).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 339 tense

(See also loT replacements .)

The loT too, like the liG, means command, advice, invitation, wish, question, request, prayer.

As in --

gam + loT sipgam + zap + sipgach + a + sipgaccha + sipgaccha + hi'''gaccha "go!"

jIva "live!"

inria says " imp." when it detects a loT. Don't confuse that with " impft", meaning laG.

For wishes, we may also use tuhyostAta, vidhi;nimantra, liGAziSi.

(See also doerless loT .)


AziSi liG;loTau ONPANINI 33173
Use liG or loT to mean a wish.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 340

Example with loT --

AyuSmAn vardhatAm "live long and prosper"

Example with hard liG --

AyuSmAn vardheta "live long and prosper"

When we use the liG to mean a wish, optional rule liGAziSi can make the liG affix replacer soft. This does not change the meaning --

AyuSmAn vardhiSISTa "live long and prosper"

I made up that last example, as there are hardly any examples of bent soft liG outside of the vedic literature.

This leaves out the bent soft liG, which never get G. But if they are iT-less, they sometimes become kit by liGsicAvAtmanepadeSu ff. This didn't happen here, because iSiSTa has iT, as vRdh is a seT root. So kGitica did not work.


mAGi luG ONPANINI 33175
When there is mAG, use luG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 341

mA(G) expresses prohibition , and it can be used with no verb, as in --

mA "don't!"

But this rule says that, if it is used with a verb, it must be a luG verb, as in --

mA vanaGM gamaH "don't go to the woods!"

u mA tapaH kArSIH "heck, don't practise austerities!"

This rule forbids the use of all other tenses with mA for prohibition. But in spite of this rule, the epics use /mA with loT sometimes --

mA vanaGM gaccha "don't go to the woods!"

u mA tapaH kuru "heck, don't practise austerities!"

Notice that the two luG in the examples above would usually have been agamas and akArSIs. But here, luGlaG did not work, because of the exception na mAG-yoge, see --

gam + luG sip puSAdidyutAdyLditaH gam + aG + sipgam + a + s'''gamas

kR + luG sipkR + sic + s''' sicivRddhiH kAr + s + s astisico kAr + s + Is kric kArSIs

If you type gamaH kArSIH into inria, it will label them with " inj", which means that these have luG but got no luGlaG nor ADajA.


smottare laG ca ONPANINI 33176
After sma, laG too.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 342

When we express a prohibition, or a negative blessing, with mAG, rule mAGiluG says that the tense must be luG. This exception says that if there is sma, the tense may be luG or laG --

mA sma zoke manaH kArSIr mA sma zoke manaH karoH

"Do not set thy mind on sorrow, do not set thy mind on sorrow."

Notice that namAGyoge worked with this laG too.

Inria, as of 2021, used to paint this karoH gray.


liG-arthe leT ONPANINI 34007
leT has liG meaningmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 343 tense

The leT tense is used only in the vedas. So NVM about it. Inria calls it " subj" or " subjunctive".

Like the liG and the loT, the leT expresses wishes, requests, commands and benedictions.

Example. In Rgveda 7.25.1 we hear --

patAti vidyut

this patAti comes from pat + leT, and means the same thing as pat + liG, pated vidyut "may lightning fall".


alaG;khalvoH pratiSedhayoH prAcAM ktvA ONPANINI 34018
Optionally use ktvA with alam khalu to mean "stop doing".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 344

The words alam and khalu may mean "enough of". When there has been enough of doing something, we may express that by using alam or khalu and an action noun with TA --

alamM bAle rodanena "enough, girl, with crying!"

khalu pAnena "enough with drinking"

This rule says that instead of using an action noun, we may also add use the ktvA of the same root --

alamM bAle ruditvA "enough, girl, with crying!"

khalu pItvA "enough with drinking"

Translating those as "stop crying", "no more booze for ya", etc, works too.


samAna-kartRkayoH pUrva-kAle ONPANINI 34021
Of two with same doer, ( ktvA) means what happens first.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 345

When two actions follow one another and have the same doer, the word that means what happens first may be replaced with the ktvA-ender from the same root.

Example. We can say these three sentences one after another. That is grammatical, but sort of clumsy --

Agaccham apazyam ajayam "I came. I saw. I conquered."

It is far better to apply this rule, which replaces Agaccham "I came" with Agamya, same meaning, and apazyam with dRSTvA. The last action ajayam "I conquered" cannot be replaced --

Agamya dRSTvAjayam "I came, I saw, I conquered."

This sort of flows better.

Those words Agamya and dRStvA were built by attaching ktvA after the roots (and preverb) of Agaccham and apazyam --

apazyamdRz + laG → dRz + ktvA vrazcabhrasja dRS + tvA STunASTuH dRSTvA "after seeing"

AgacchamAG + gam + laG → AG + gam + ktvAA + gam + lyapAgamya "after coming"

Even though dRSTvA properly means "after seeing", most of the time translations like "saw and" or "will see and" feel more natural.

Incidentally, you'll find that "he went to war and was killed" sort of construction sometimes however in the epics. That is not kosher, but whenever it happens it is easy to understand --

yodhayitvA mahAbAhur eSa pArthanM dhanaJMjayam

saMzayaGM gamayitvA ca kuntIputreNa pAtitaH


AbhIkSNye Namul ca ONPANINI 34022
( ktvA and) Namul mean repetition.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 346

Rule nityavIpsayoH will work too.

So, in --

bhuktvA bhuktvA vrajati "he eats and eats and then leaves"

bhojamM bhojaM vrajati "he eats and eats and then leaves"

The words bhuktvA and bhojam are built this way --

bhuJj + ktvA aniditA bhuj + tvA coHkuH bhug + tvA kharica bhuktvA

bhuJj + Namul aniditA bhuj + am puganta bhojam

06030019a bhUtagrAmaH sa evAyaM bhUtvA bhUtvA pralIyate

08008027c balavat sUryarazmyAbhair bhittvA bhittvA vinedatuH

32134 habitual doer affixes, future time ←

chunk 22: 33156 liG and loT

→ 34067 kartari karmaNi