A kadArAd ekA saJjA, nadI, wee ←

chunk 10: 14000 stem, wimpy, roles

→ 14056 nipAta, person

14013 The stem of an affix is whatever it was added to originally, even if it grew afterwards. yasmAtpratyayavidhistadAdipratyayeGgam
14014 sup-/tiG-ender is word. suptiGantampadam
14015 Before kya, n . naHkye
14017 What is before weak . svAdiSvasarvanAmasthAne
14018 But wimpy before y and ac. yacibham
14019 t s a matvartha. tasaumatvarthe
14021 Use plural when meaning many. bahuSubahuvacanam
14022 Dual, singular mean two, one. dvyekayordvivacanaikavacane
14023 When meaning relationship with an action. kArake
14024 Thingfromwhich is whatever one goes away from. dhruvamapAyepAdAnam
14025 Reason for fear, of roots meaning fear protection. bhItrArthAnAmbhayahetuH
14026 Whatever one is fed up with, of parAji parAjerasoDhaH
14032 Aim is what doer wants to connect with object karmaNAyamabhipraitisasampradAnam
14033 With verbs that mean "to like", the pleased one . rucyarthAnAmprIyamANaH
14034 With zlAgh hnu sthA zap, the person one wants to affect . zlAghahnuGsthAzapAJjJIpsyamAnaH
14042 Tool is what just helps. sAdhakatamaGkaraNam
14045 Location is the place . AdhArodhikaraNam
14049 object is what the doer wants most. karturIpsitatamaGkarma
14050 What is related to the verb in the same way too, even if unwanted. tathAyuktaJcAnIpsitam
14051 Some roots may take an extra object optionally. akathitaJca
14054 Doer is who acts on its own. svatantraHkartA


yasmAt pratyaya-vidhis tad-Adi pratyaye 'Ggam ONPANINI 14013
The stem of an affix is whatever it was added to originally, even if it grew afterwards.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 121

Simple example.

azva- is a nounbase.

Rule GyApprA says "add su to azva-".

Here azva is the stem of su.

Complicated example.

phala- is a nounbase. Then GyApprA says, add jas to it.

So at the stage phala + jas, phala is the stem of jas.

Now some rule changes jas into zi.

Now we have phala + zi, and phala is the stem of zi.

Now some rule adds num to phala, turning it into phalan.

In phalan + zi, phalan is the stem of zi. It has grown.

And now thanks to the fact that phalan is the stem of zi, rule rAjAnam must work on it (that rule rAjAnam works on all stems that end in n, not just on nounbases that end in n). So we get --

phalan- + zi rAjAnam phalAni


sup;tiG-antaM padam ONPANINI 14014
sup- tiG-ender is word.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 122

Simple examples --

azvas "horse" is a word because it is made from azva- (a nounbase) plus su (a sup).

azva- ( nounbase) + su ( sup affix ) → azvas "horse"

carati "moves" is a word because it is made from car (a root) plus tip (a tiG).

car- ( root ) + laT lasya car + tip ( tiG affix ) → car + zap + tipcarati "moves" ( word )

Harder examples --

cara "move on!" is a word because it was formed this way --

car- + loTcar + sip ( tiG affix ) → car + zap + sipcara + hi''' atoheH cara

Here, adding that sip affix made carsi into a word, and even though atoheH deleted the affix later, the wordness stayed.

The madhu of madhv icchati is a word, because it got am, even though that am was deleted afterwards --

madhu- ( nounbase ) + am suptiG madhu + am ( word ) svamorna madhu ( word )

and so is the sundari meaning "hey cutie" --

sundarI- ( nounbase ) + @calling → * sundarI + @calling ( word ) ambArtha sundari + s ( word ) eGhrasvAt sundari ( word )

See also --

sup-ender is noun

tiG-ender is verb .


naH kye ONPANINI 14015
Before kya, n (is wordfinal).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 123

kya is short for kyac kyaG kyaS. Before these three, a n will become wordfinal, and will get eaten by nalopaHprA --

rAjan- + kyaG → * rAjan ( word ) + ya nalopaHprA rAja + ya kyacica rAjIya "behave like a king"


sv;AdiSv a-sarvanAmasthAne ONPANINI 14017
What is before weak (is a word).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 124

The nounbase that is before a valAdi weak is a word, in addition to being a nounbase.

This means that nounbases before valAdi weaks behave as if they were words as far as sandhi rules are concerned.

Example. When we join together manas- n + bhis, bhis is a weak and a valAdi. The whole manasbhis is a word, because suptiG rule says so. But this rule turns the part (manas) of manasbhis into a word too --

manas- + bhis → * manas ( word ) + bhis

Because this manas is a word, the as is wordfinal. Therefore rules sasaju and hazica (which only work on wordfinals) change that as into o --

manas- + bhis → * manas ( word ) + bhis sasaju mana + ru + bhis hazica manobhis "by minds"

Had the s not been wordfinal, sasaju wouldn't have worked, and rule jhalAJjazjhazi would have turned that s into d.


yaci bham ONPANINI 14018
But wimpy before y and ac.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 125

Exception to svAdiSva. The nounbase that is before a weak that starts with y or an ac, is wimpy (in addition to being a nounbase), and is not a word.


TA is always weak, and does not start with a val (it starts with A because T is a label and doesn't count)

Therefore, whatever nounbase we add TA to, is a wimpy nounbase.

And that nounbase is not a word.

As in --

rAjan- + TA → * @wimpy rAjan + A alloponaH rAjn + A stozzcu rAjJA

Therefore a nounbase, after we add to it a sup or a taddhita, can be in one of three situations --

(A) it can be before a strong

(B) it can be a word, if either its sup was deleted, or it is before a valAdi weak

(C) otherwise it will be wimpy, that is, before a y;ac weak.

Declension table of rAjan m.

In that table, the ones that have "rAjñ" are the ones that had a wimpy rAjan. The a disappeared by alloponaH, making rAjn, then stozzcu worked, making rAjJ.

Remembering this general rule is far easier than memorizing the whole list of 21 words in the table.


ta;sau matv-arthe ONPANINI 14019
t s (are wimpy before) a matvartha.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 126

Exception to svAdiSva. The matvartha affixes are those that mean "that has". Of those, matup vatup and vin(i) start with a consonant, and, were it not for this exception, rule svAdiSva would have wordified them.

In the following examples, the lack of wordness of garut- vidyut- yazas- made rule jhalAMjazonte not work --

garut- + matup → * @wimpy garut- + matgarutmat- "winged"

vidyut- + vatupvidyutvat- "that has lightning"

Some m f n examples --

vidyutvAn meghaH "a cloud that has (much) lightning"

vidyutvatI zAlA "an electrified assembly-hall"

zarIraM staumi vidyutvat "I sing the body electric"

and here hazica did not work --

yazas + vini + GI yasyetica yazasvinI- @f "that has fame, famous"

As in --

nakulasH sahadevo vA draupadI vA yazasvinI "nakula or sahadeva or the renowned draupadI"

takSan- + vatup nalopaHp takSavat- "that has carpenter(s)"


bahuSu bahuvacanam ONPANINI 14021
Use plural when meaning many.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 127

" many", in grammar, means "three or more". So we can't use a plural to mean two.

Examples. In these sentences, the nounbase azva- got the plural endings jas zas bhis because it means many horses --

azvAz caranti "horses walk"

azvAn pazyAmi "I see horses"

azvair nadI tIrNA "river was crossed by horses"

And the verbs here got the plural endings jhi, jha because they mean the doer and there are many doers --

kapayaz caranti "monkeys walk"

kapayaH plavante "monkeys jump"

And these other verbs here got the plural endings jha mahi because they mean the object and there are many objects --

vyasmaryanta "they were forgotten"

dRzyAmahe "we are being seen"

jas zas bhis bhyas Am sup'

and these six verb endings --

jhi tha mas jha dhvam mahi


dvy;ekayor dvivacan'-.aikavacane ONPANINI 14022
Dual, singular mean two, one.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 128

So, we must use a dual ending when two things are meant --

azvau "two horses" has dual ending W

rAmasItayos "of rAma and sItA" has dual ending os

caratas "both walk" has tas

plavete "both jump" has AtAm

dRzyete "both are being seen" has AtAm

and singular ending when meaning one thing --

azvas "horse" has su

carati "walks" has tip

plavate "jumps" has ta

dRzyate "is being seen" has ta

vimRjya netre pANibhyAGM kRSNaM vacanam abravIt

"wiped his eyes with his hands and said this to kRSNa"


kArake ONPANINI 14023
When meaning relationship with an action.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 129

headline. The following rules only work on words related to an action.


One of the rules below explains " location means place".

Now, if this had been said in any other part of the grammar, we would say that a forest is a location, because a forest is a place. But, actually, this rule

" location means place"

is short for

"the location of an action is the word that describes the place where the action happens".

So, in the sentence hanumAn yudhyate vane, the word vane is the location of the word yudhyate, because it explains where the fighting happens.

However, in the sentence vanam etat su-sundaram "this forest is very beautiful", the word vanam is not a location.

The words that have this sort of relationships with actions are called kAraka words or role words. There are six sorts of role words --

doer -- who does the action

object -- what gets done

tool -- what helps to do the action, and is not one of the above

aim -- what the action is aimed at, who is benefitted or harmed by it, or the purpose of the action

thingfromwhich -- the starting point of movement or the cause of the action

location -- the place where the action happens


dhruvam apAye 'pAdAnam ONPANINI 14024
thingfromwhich is whatever one goes away from.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 130

The thingfromwhich role shows the point AWAY FROM WHICH an action of moving happens --

kapiH pAdapAd avarohati "monkey descends from tree"

The word that means the action does not need to be in the sentence if it is obvious --

meghAj jalam "water (is coming) from cloud"

In the above examples, pAdapa- "tree" and megha- "cloud" got fifth ending by rule apAdAnepaJcamI, namely singular Gasi --

pAdapa- + Gasi TAGasi pAdapa- + AtpAdapAt "from tree"

Besides physical places that things come from, the thingfromwhich role can also mean the cause, reason, motive --

bhayAd raNAd uparataH "he fleed from the battlefield because of fear"

and sometimes means the thing one would like to get away from (for examples, see bhItrArthA and parAjera right below).


bhI;trA-'rthAnAM bhaya-hetuH ONPANINI 14025
Reason for fear, (is thingfromwhich) of roots meaning fear protection.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 131

As for instance, the word caurebhyas and vRkAt here --

janA bibheti caurebhyaH "people are afraid from thieves"

rAjA caurebhyas trAyate "king protects from thieves"

vRkAd bibhemi "I'm afraid from the wolf"

are thingfromwhich of their verbs by this rule, and that's why they got fifth from apAdAnepaJcamI.


parAjer a-soDhaH ONPANINI 14026
Whatever one is fed up with, (is thingfromwhich) of parAjimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 132

As in --

vyAkaraNAt parAjaye "I'm fed up from grammar"

Here vyAkaraNa- became a thingfromwhich by this rule, then got fifth by apAdAnepaJcamI.

When parAji means to conquer, this rule won't work --

zatruNA parAjito 'smi "I was defeated by enemy"

zatrUn parAjaye "I defeat the enemies"


karmaNA yam abhipraiti sa sampradAnam ONPANINI 14032
aim is what doer wants to connect with objectmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 133

Examples. Here rAma (the doer of kSipati) wants the arrow (the object of kSipati) to connect with the deer. Therefore, the deer is the aim --

mRgAya zaraM rAmaH kSipati "rAma shoots arrow at deer"

because rAma wants the arrow to connect with the deer.

And here the king (doer of dadAti) wants the arrow (object of dadAti) to connect with the brAhmaNa, so the brAhmaNa is the aim --

rAjA brAhmaNAya gAnM dadAti "king gives cow to brahmin"

Here the aim words mRgAya and brAhmaNAya got Ge because of caturthIsa.

See also --

what means purpose or result is an aim

with verbs that mean to like the pleased one is the aim

with zlAgh hnu sthA zap the person one wants to affect is the aim


rucy-arthAnAM prIyamANaH ONPANINI 14033
With verbs that mean "to like", the pleased one (is the aim).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 134

And the thing liked is the doer. As in --

rocate me na tat phalam "that fruit doesn't appeal to me, I don't like that fruit"

rocante 'gra-viprAya vezyAH "prostitutes appeal to Pope, Pope likes prostitutes"

Here me "to me" and agraviprAya "to the head priest" are aims because they mean who is pleased. Because they are aim, they got fourth ending by rule fourth means aim --

agravipra- + Ge → .. → agraviprAya "to the main priest"

asmad- + Ge → .. → me "to me"

Exception. With ruc + Nic (rocayate), the pleased person is the doer. So in this example aham is not an aim but a doer --

na rocaye jJAti-vadhanM draSTum "I wouldn't like to see the killing of my kinsmen"


zlAgha;hnuG;sthA;zapAM jJIpsyamAnaH ONPANINI 14034
With zlAgh hnu sthA zap, the person one wants to affect (is the aim).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 135

Therefore the person gets fourth. As in --

devadattAya zlAghate "praises devadatta"

devadattAya hnute "avoids devadatta"

devadattAya zapate "curses devadatta"


sAdhakatamaM karaNam ONPANINI 14042
tool is what just helps.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 136

This rule explains what the " tool" role is. The tool of an action is what helps to do the action but is not the doer, object, etc. Example. In --

parazunA chinatti devadatto vRkSam "devadatta chops off tree with axe"

the action is chinatti, devadatta is the doer of that action, and the object is vRkSam. So the axe is neither doer nor object. But it is the tool, because it helps to chop.

parazu- + TA AGonAstriyAm parazu + nAparazunA "with an axe"

zarAH kSipyante rAmeNa rakSobhyo dhanuSA raNe "Are being shot arrows by rAma at the demons with his bow in the battlefield"

vane rAmeNa sItA bhramati "sItA wanders in the forest with rAma"

or part of the doer --

vane rAmasH sItA ca bhramataH "rAma and sItA wander in the forest"

The last three sentences have the same meaning, but the verb agrees with the doer only, and ignores the accompanier.

vane rAmasH sItayA saha bhramati "rAma wanders in the forest with sItA"

vane rAmeNa sArdhaM sItA bhramati "sItA wanders in the forest with rAma"


AdhAro 'dhikaraNam ONPANINI 14045
location is the place (of the doer or object of the action).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 137

Example. In --

vyAghraM rAmo vane 'pazyat "in forest rAma saw tiger"

the word vane is the location of the root dRz of apazyat, either because rAma is in the forest, or because the tiger is in the forest.

Yet, in --

pazyAmi sumahad vanam "I see a very big forest"

even though the forest is a place, the word vanam is not a location. Because it tells what I see, it is an object. Even if I am in the forest when I say that.

The Sanskrit term for location is adhikaraNa, which can also mean referent.


kartur IpsitatamaM karma ONPANINI 14049
object (of an action) is what the doer wants most.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 138

Example 1. In the sentence

palI pUpam icchati "Polly wants a cookie", "a cookie is wanted by Polly"

the cookie is the object, because Polly wants it.

Example 2. In the sentence

palyA pUpa iSyate "Polly wants a cookie", "a cookie is wanted by Polly"

the cookie is still the object, because Polly still wants it.

Now please see next rule, tathAyukta.

icchAmi payasA pUpAn pUpair icchAmi va payaH | atrepsitatamaGM karma sAdhakaGM karaNaM smRte ||


tathA-yuktaM c/An-Ipsitam ONPANINI 14050
What is related to the verb in the same way (is object) too, even if unwanted.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 139

The previous rule teaches that if Polly wants a cookie, the cookie is the object.

This rule says that whatever word is related to whatever root in the same way, is also the object, even if no wanting is involved. So here too pUpam is the object of icchati --

palI pUpanM n/ecchati "Polly does not want a cookie"

and here the bone is an object too --

asthi zvA vindati "a dog finds a bone"

Explained in another way: when we use roots like find, hate, see, drink, etc then whatever is found, hated, seen, drunk, etc is the object. As long as it works in grammar in the exact same way as a wanted cookie, it's an object.


akathitaM ca ONPANINI 14051
Some roots may take an extra object optionally.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 140

One such special roots is ruh meaning "stop, restrict, confine". Because of the normal rules, we may say --

avaruNaddhi gAM vraje "he confines the cow in the stall"

because vraje is a location (it means the place where the cow is confined). But because ruh is one of the special roots, we may also, if we want, make the stall be an object instead of a location, and say --

avaruNaddhi gAM vrajam "he confines the cow to the stall"

with the exact same meaning. Here, gAm is the normal object, and vrajam is said to be an akathita object.

Not many roots can take such extra objects. The most common are duh yAc daND pracch brU zAs nI vah.

An example with zAs --

mANavakanM dharmam anuzAsti "he teaches the boy justice"

which means the same thing as --

mANavakAya dharmam anuzAsti "he teaches justice to the boy"


sva-tantraH kartA ONPANINI 14054
doer (of an action) is who acts on its own.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 141

Example 1.

In the sentence --

palI pUpam icchati "Polly wants cookie"

the word palI is the doer of icchati, because she does the wanting.

Example 2.

In --

iSyate palyA pUpaH "cookie is wanted by Polly"

the word palyA (by Polly) is the doer of iSyate, because she's still doing the wanting.

A kadArAd ekA saJjA, nadI, wee ←

chunk 10: 14000 stem, wimpy, roles

→ 14056 nipAta, person