14000 stem, wimpy, roles ←
→ 21003 compounds
14056 Down to
14059 A preverb is a
14099 Tense replacers are flat.
14105 Use second person when the verb means "you", even if the word meaning you is hidden.
14107 Use first person when the verb means me, even if the word meaning me is hidden.
14108 third person otherwise
14109 What is not before a pause is in
14110 pause means stopping
headline. The words described in the next rules, down to
The nipAta are unchanging, because rule svarAdi says so.
These are some of the nipAta --
These are nipAta because they are listed in the
(See also List of preverbs .)
Preverbs work like the English little words "up, on, down, at, with" that we find after English verbs in "come up, come in, carry out, go on, come up with, look at, come on", or before the verb in "understand, foresee, ongoing". In Sanskrit they are nearly always attached in front of the verb, but sometimes they can be at the other end of the sentence.
Like in English, the prAdi can change the meaning of the basic verb logically, randomly, or not at all.
Examples. The preverb ava is said to have the basic meanings "down, away".
So these meanings look logical --
But these others, not so much --
Also, the preverb AG has the basic meaning "towards here", so we say quite logically --
Yet, in this case, AG does not change the meaning at all --
Therefore, sometimes you can figure out the meaning of a root with a preverb just from the meaning of the root and the meaning of the preverb. But other times you cannot, and then you have to look for the preverbed root in a dictionary.
However, dictionaries do not cover all the combinations of preverb and root that have ever been used, so you should really check the list of preverbs .
In the epics, many preverbs appear to be used as verse fillers. So when you find a verb form such as
If we disregard the veda, this rule might be translated as "MUST be compounded", as the compounding always happens in the modern language.
Usually, verbs don't compound with anything; most compounds are noun plus noun or unchanging plus noun. But there are three exceptions to this principle --
(1) By this rule, gatizca , an upasarga may be compounded in front of a verb --
(2) by the rules below this one, some nouns can be compounded in front of a verb made from kR bhU as and any tense.
(3) by kAs;pratyayA and other rules, the Am''-enders must be compounded in front of a verb made from kR bhU as and a liT.
There are eleven flat affixes. They are:
the first nine of the tiG, that replace all tenses --
and zatR, that replaces laT (by laTazza ) and sometimes replaces lRT (by lRTassadvA),
The flat affixes always mean the doer.
See exception taGAnAvAtmanepadam below.
Exception to the previous rule tense replacers are flat .
There are eleven bent affixes:
The nine taG, that replace all tenses --
and the two
and kAnac, that replaces liT in the veda.
All eleven can mean the doer or not.
In more detail --
tiptasjhi -- these are third person 3
sipthastha -- these are second person 2
mibvasmas -- these are first person 1
tAtAMjha -- these are third person 3
thAsAthAMdhvam -- these are second person 2
iDvahimahiG -- these are first person 1
Rules yuSmadyu ff. teach when to use each person.
Example. Suppose we have to say "y'all monkeys jumped", with plu + laG.
Rule lasya says that we have to replace laG with one of the eighteen tiG.
Rule anudAttaGi says that we have to use one of the nine bent, tAtAMjha thAsAthAMdhvam iDvahimahiG.
This rule tiGastrINi rule (together with yuSmadyu) says that we need one of thAsAthAMdhvam.
And finally rule tAnyeka (together with bahuSuba) tells us to grab the third affix, dhvam.
So our verb will be --
And our sentence is --
In the list tiptas,
...and so on down to mahi.
The sup too, taken one by one, are singular dual plural.
So, in the svaujas list,
See also prAgdizovi.
Example. When the doer of the root pac is "you", and the verb means the doer, the tiG of the verb must be a second person affix, that is, one of sip thas tha thAs AthAm dhvam. In this example it is thAs --
The meaning of the word
Verbs take third person tiG affixes whenever they have no reason to take second person or first person affixes.
That's why the verbs here took jhi and tip --
See also person.
Speech sounds are before pause when you stop speaking after them, even for a short moment. Otherwise, they are in saMhitA -- followed inmediately by another sound.
The difference is important because different grammatical rules apply to what is before pause and to what is in saMhitA.
Example. According to some grammar rules, we can make a word
The letter that is before a pause is said to be
The difference between "before pause" and "in saMhitA" is important, because sometimes different grammatical rules apply in the two situations.
Yet, that only happens when there is no pause between the two words, because rule atoro only works when the ru is in saMhitA. When we make a pause between the two words, the
14000 stem, wimpy, roles ←
→ 21003 compounds