PRONUNCIATION ------------------------------------- ←

chunk 81: phonetics jargon

→ pronunciation guide anusvAra visarga

The "puff" after stops .
position is the part of the mouth that obstructs the air most.
Openness is the distance between the parts of the mouth that most obstruct the air.
" Velar " means back of tongue near back of palate
" palatal " means middle of tongue near roof of palate
curledback means "tongue curled back".
Dental means tongue tip hits teeth.
"labial" means lips approach each other




(/mahAprANa) (/mahA)

The " puff" after stops ( mahAprANa and alpaprANa).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1488

The twenty stops of Sanskrit are pronounced with some puff of air. Technically explained: during stop consonants like t th p ph ph k kh, the tongue or lips stop completely the pass of air. While the obstruction lasts, the pressure behind the obstruction rises, and when the obstruction is released some air goes out in a burst. The hissing sound made by that air I call a " puff". In Wikipedia on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirated consonant aspirated consonants, you can read how to test for the presence of a puff using a candle flame.

Ancient Sanskrit grammarians call that puff a prANa ("air"). They say there are two sorts of stops. The ones with "small air" are called alpaprANa, they are --

k g c j T D t d p b

And the ones with "big air" are called mahAprANa --

kh gh ch jh Th Dh th dh ph bh

The k g etc are pronounced in exactly the same way as the kh gh etc, the only difference being that the ones written with fake h accumulate more presure, so that when the obstruction is released, the puff is noisier.

See also hints to learn to pronounce the puff .

822 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 14 -- popularity 3

1552 /jhaz are {jha bhaJ gha Dha dhaS ja ba ga Da daz}.

1553 /khay are { kha pha cha Tha tha ca Ta tav ka pay }.




(@position) (@po)

position is the part of the mouth that obstructs the air most.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1489

The position of a sound is called asya at rule tulyAsya.

Sanskrit sounds are grouped into five positions, according to the position of tongue or lips. Counting from the back of the mouth to the front they are --

velar -- back of tongue near back of palate -- ku G K u U o au

palatal -- middle of tongue near roof of palate -- cu J z i I e ai

curledback -- tip of tongue near roof of palate -- Tu N S

dental -- tip of tongue near teeth -- tu n s l L

labial -- lips near each other -- pu M v F

Rule tulyAsya mentions the word position.

QRAQRAQRA

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

...

QRA QRA QRA

410 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 152 -- popularity 10




(@openness) (@ope)

openness is the distance between the parts of the mouth that most obstruct the air.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1490

Example. The letters t, s and i all are made by moving the tongue tip somewhat near the teeth. In all three, tongue and teeth obstruct or disturb the pass of air. Therefore their position is the same, dental.

Yet, in t the pass of air is fully closed and no sound gets out, in s it is almost closed and there is hissing, and in i the pass is open. Therefore these sounds have different openness.

pANini says that t s i have different prayatna, "effort". The idea here is that saying t needs more tongue pressure than saying s, and s more pressure than i.

Similarly, all of b F v u are labial, but the lips have different degrees of openness: closed, almost closed, a bit open, open.

527 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 223 -- popularity 3

22 What has same @position and @openness is @similar.

23 @vowel and @consonant aren't (@similar).

1492 " @palatal " means middle of tongue near roof of palate




(@velar) (@vel)

" velar " means back of tongue near back of palatemmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C- 1491

" velar" is the position of ku G K.

Same position as in "keep", "great", ng of "singer".

59 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 253 -- popularity 2

1481 pronunciation of [@consonant]s




(@palatal) (@pal)

" palatal " means middle of tongue near roof of palatemmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1492

The sounds cu J z have palatal position.

Many people mispronounce J as a nasalized y~. That has way too much openness. The J is a nasal like m n N G, and the tongue has to obstruct completely the pass of air thru the mouth.

172 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 262 -- popularity 5

22 What has same @position and @openness is @similar.

23 @vowel and @consonant aren't (@similar).

46 Replace with the @most-alike.

1481 pronunciation of [@consonant]s




(@curledback) (@cu)

curledback means "tongue curled back".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1493

" curledback" is the position of the tongue when saying S and the five Tu. When saying the curledback letters, the tongue curls backward. These letters are also known by many other funny names such as retroflexes and cerebrals; in Sanskrit they are called mUrdhanya "made with the top". The word is used in the rule a-padAntasya mUrdhanyaH "replace non wordfinal with curledback".

QRAQRAQRA

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

...

QRA QRA QRA

323 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 262 -- popularity 6

22 What has same @position and @openness is @similar.

23 @vowel and @consonant aren't (@similar).

1033 Even if /aT' /ku /pu /AG /M come in between.

1481 pronunciation of [@consonant]s




(@dental) (@den)

dental means tongue tip hits teeth.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1494

" dental" is the position of tu n s. The tip of the tongue touches the upper teeth and the very tip is between upper and lower teeth.

QRAQRAQRA

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

...

QRA QRA QRA

120 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 363 -- popularity 4

22 What has same @position and @openness is @similar.

1481 pronunciation of [@consonant]s

1490 @Openness is the distance between the parts of the mouth that most obstruct the air.




(@labial) (@labi)

" labial" means lips approach each othermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1495

The labial sounds are those in which the lips approach or touch each other.

The five pu letters are labials. So are M, v and F.

QRAQRAQRA

TURTLETURTLETURTLE

...

QRA QRA QRA

116 letters. -- 37902phoneticsjargon.bse 381 -- popularity 5

46 Replace with the @most-alike.

763 (!q to) !ur after @root @labial.

1481 pronunciation of [@consonant]s

1489 @position is the part of the mouth that obstructs the air most.

1490 @Openness is the distance between the parts of the mouth that most obstruct the air.
















PRONUNCIATION ------------------------------------- ←

chunk 81: phonetics jargon

→ pronunciation guide anusvAra visarga