83002 n to Ms ←

chunk 49: 83034 visarga sandhi

→ 83005 Satvam and Natvam

83034 H to s before chav. visarjanIyasyasaH
83035 to H before kS ts. zarparevisarjanIyaH
83036 H to s before zar. vAzari
83037 Before ku pu, K F. kupvoKkaFpauca
83038 s before affix. sopadAdau
83039 But with S after i u. iNaSSaH
83041 Non-affix iH uH to . idudupadhasyacApratyayasya


visarjanIyasya saH ONPANINI 83034
H to s before chav.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 974

Examples --

azva + ru + tarati kharava azva + H + tarati → azvas tarati "horse crosses"

dhanu + ru + chinatti kharava dhanu + H + chinatti → dhanus chinatti stozz dhanuz chinattidhanuz chinatti "cuts the bow"

See also exception zarpare.


zar-pare visarjanIyaH ONPANINI 83035
( H) to H before kS ts.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 975

Exception to kupvoKkaFpauca, that would have allowed H or K optionally before k kh --

sarpAs + kSetre sasaju sarpA + ru + kSetre kharava sarpAH kSetre → sarpAH kSetre "there are snakes in the field"

And to visarjanIyasyasaH, that would have made s before t --

rAmas + tsarukaH sasaju rAma + ru + tsarukaH kharava rAmaH + tsarukaH → rAmaH tsarukaH "rAma is good with a sword"


vA zari ONPANINI 83036
H to s before zar.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 976

This rule turns all H into s, in saMhitA.

Example with an H that comes from true r --

punar + sIdati kharava punaH + sIdati → punasH sIdati "sits again"

Example with an H that comes from wordfinal s --

rAmas + sIdati sasaju rAmar sIdati kharava rAmaH + sIdati → rAmasH sIdati "rAma sits"

As usual, stozzcu and STunA will work --

namas + zivAya sasaju namar zivAya kharava namaH + zivAya → namas zivAya stozzcu namazH zivAya "hail to ziva"

vyAghryas + SaT sasaju vyAghryar SaT kharava vyAghryaSH SaT → vyAghryas SaT STunA vyAghryaSH SaT "six tigresses"


Because of an old custom, the s z S sound made by this rule is still spelled with the letter H, as if the rule had not worked.

Please remember --

always read aloud Hs Hz HS as if they were spelled ss zz SS.

always spell ss zz SS with the letters Hs Hz HS.


ku;pvo Kka;Fpau ca ONPANINI 83037
Before ku pu, ( H to either H or) K F.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 977 sandhi

This rule will work when a wordfinal s or r is before k kh p ph.

This rule can work in two ways. You may choose: either replace the H sound either with itself, like this --

azvas + kramati sasaju azvarkramati kharava azvaHkramati → azvaHkramati "horse walks"

azvas + pazyati → .. → azvaHpazyati "horse sees"

or with the most alike of K F --

azvas + kramati sasaju azvarkramati kharava azvaHkramati → azvaKkramati "horse walks"

azvas + pazyati → .. → azvaFpazyati "horse sees"

This rule will not work before kS, because in that case the exception in advance zarpare replaces ru with H compulsorily --

azvas + kSetram + pazyati zarpare azvaHkSetrampazyati

bhagavad gItA 2:3

, to be precise at gamaFpArtha. It is quite hard to hear because it MUST be spelled gamaHpArtha as if it were a regular H sound.

the complete sUtrapATha

the complete sUtrapATha


so '-pad'-Adau ONPANINI 83038
( H to) s before ( ku pu) affix.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 978

Exception to kupvoKkaFpauca. H turns into s, not into H or K F as usual, before the four affixes that start with p k, which are --

pAzap kalpap ka kAmyac.

Example --

payas + kAmyac + laT tip → payaskAmyati "wants milk"

See also iNaSSaH below.


But with S after i u.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 979

Or in other words:

The s made by sopadAdau must be replaced with S unless after a A.

Example --

sarpis- + kAmyac + laT ta svAdiSva sarpis ( word ) + kAmya + ta kharava sarpiH + kAmya + ta sopadAdau sarpis + kAmya + ta → sarpiS + kAmya + ta Tita sarpiSkAmyate "wants ghee"


id;ud-upadhasya c/A-pratyayasya ONPANINI 83041
Non- affix iH uH to (S before ku pu).mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 980

Exception to kupvoKk, that would've made H or K F instead.

There are very few nounbases that end in is ir us ur. These examples have nis dur bahir Avis catur- prAdus --






83002 n to Ms ←

chunk 49: 83034 visarga sandhi

→ 83005 Satvam and Natvam