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phalam, phale, phalAni
rAjA, nAma, pitA, rAjan, pitar
cakAra babhUva Asa
kSipa, cintaya, nRtya.
examples of reduplication before liT
examples of reduplication before san
gRhNA, punA, jinA, puSNA, krINA
plava, aplava, paca, bhava, naya, zoca, cara.
nAyi, kAri, pAci, cori, cinti
juhu bibhI dadA mimA bibhR jahA
about rundh and runadh


phalam, phale, phalAnimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1487

All neuter nounbases replace svaujas with "nothing, I, i". And these replace amauTchaS too.

The following summary shows the rules that work after we add one of the endings svaujas or amauTchaS to a neuter that ends in a.

phala- + su OR am atom phalam "result; a piece of fruit"

phala- + auphala- + zI AdguNaH phale "two results, two pieces of fruit"

phala- + jas OR zas napuMsakAcca phala + zi nonfunny phalan + i rAjAnam phalAni "results, fruits"

Amra- + jas OR zasamrAni ( like phalAni ) Natvam AmrANi "mangoes"

The calling disappears by rule eGhra. Therefore the correct way to address a banana in Sanskrit is

he kadalIphala "hey banana!"

As my granma used to say, "you'll never go to sleep without having learnt something new".


rAjA, nAma, pitA, rAjan, pitarmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1488

The nounbase rAjan- m means "king". When we add the non- calling su after it, we get rAjA by these three rules --

rAjan m + su rAjAnam rAjAns halGyA rAjAn nalopaHprA rAjA

pitR- m means "father". When it gets the non- calling su, rule Rduzana changes pitRs into pitans, and then those same three rules change pitans into pitA.

nAman- n means "name". As it is a neuter, we get --

nAman @n + su OR am svamorna nAman nalopaHprA nAma

With the calling we get --

pitR + @calling s RtoGi pitars saMyogAnta pitar "hey dad; revered sire"

rAjan- + @calling s halGyA rAjan "hey king; Your Highness"


cakAra babhUva Asammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1489

Forms of the auxiliary roots with Nal and ta --

kR + liT tipkR + NalcakR + Nal acoJNiti cakAra

kR + liT tacakR + ez ikoyaNaci cakre

bhU + liT tipbhU + NalbabhU + a bhuvovugluGliToH babhUva

as + liT tipas + Nal ata::upa As + Nal liTidhA A + As + a hrasvaH a + As + a ata::AdeH A + As + a akassa Asa

With the other third person endings --

cakAra cakratus cakrus

cakre cakrAte cakrire

babhUva babhUvatus babhUvus

Asa Asatus Asus

The last three forms Asa Asatus asus are only allowed when as is used as an auxiliary. Otherwise bhavateraH works, so we have to say babhUva babhUvatus babhUvus for "he was, they2 were, they were".


kSipa, cintaya, nRtya.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1490

These word-pieces are made by adding za Nic zyan after a root that is before a hard doer affix.

kSip tudAdibhyazzaH kSip + zakSipa

cint satyApapAza cinti kartarizap cinti + zap hardsoft cinte + a ecoya cintaya

nRt divAdibhyazzyan nRt + zyannRtya


examples of reduplication before liTmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1491

pac ekAcodve papac

kR ( before liT ) ekAcodve kRkR kuhozcuH cRkR urat carkR halAdizzeSaH cakR

kSip ekAcodve kSikSip halAdizzeSaH kikSip kuhozcuH cikSip

nI ekAcodve nInI hrasvaH ninI


As in --

kR + liT takR + ezcakR + ez ikoyaNaci cakre "he did, he made"


examples of reduplication before sanmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1492

The reduplication before san replaces the stammer vowel with i, by sany ataH --

dRz + san vrazca dRS + sa sanyaGoH dadRS + sa sanyataH didRS + sa SaDhoHkassi didRkSa

jJA + san sanyaGo jajJAsa sanyataH jijJAsa

jijJAsate gurur dharmaJM chAtraz zuzrUSate gurum

pac + san → .. → pipakSa "want to cook"

kR + san → .. → cikIrSa "want to do"

han + san sanyaGoH ha + han + sa abhyAsAcca ha + ghan + sa kuhozcuH jha + ghan + sa abhyAsecarca ja + ghan + sa sanyataH ji + ghan + sa ajjhana ji + ghAn + sa nazcA jighAMsa "want to kill"

kR + san ajjhana kRR + san RRta::i kirsa halica kIrSa sanyaGoH cikIrSa "want to do"

pA + san sanyaGoH papAsa sanyataH pipAsa "thirst"

But stammer u stays --

bhU + san sanyaGo bhUbhU + sa hrasvaH bhubhU + sa abhyAsecarca bubhU + sa kric bubhUSa "want to be"

plu + san sanyaGoH puplusa ajjhana puplU + sa kric puplUSa "want to jump"

mR + san ajjhana mRR + san udoSThya mursa halica mUrSa sanyaGoH mumUrSa "want to die, be about to die, be willing to risk one's life"

zru + san sanyaGoH zuzrusa → zuzrU + san kric zuzrUSa "want to hear"

As in --

stu + san + laT → .. → tuSTUSati

hR + san + laT → .. → jihIrSati


gRhNA, punA, jinA, puSNA, krINAmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1493

The znAclass roots, like grah pU jyA puS krI, get znA instead of zap.

This znA is actually (z)nA(G) because sArvadhAtukamapit says so.

The G label will make grahijyA work on grah jyA.

In roots such as grah puS krI, Natvam will work eventually, so we get --

grah + znA sArvadhAtukamapit grah + (G)nA grahijyA gRhnA Natvam gRhNA

pU + znA pvAdInAMhrasvaH punA

jyA + znA grahijyA jinA

puS + znA Natvam puSNA

krI + znA Natvam krINA

These forms all end in nA por NA. The A stays before tip sip mip, turns into I before consonant affixes (by IhalyaghoH), and disappears before vowel affixes (by znAbhyastayorAtaH) --

gRhNA + laT tipgRhNAti "he grabs"

gRhNA + laT tasgRhNItas "both grab"

gRhNA + laT anti'''gRhNanti "they grab"


plava, aplava, paca, bhava, naya, zoca, cara.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1494

These word-pieces are made by adding zap after a root that is before a hard doer affix.

plu kartarizap plu + zap hardsoft plo + a ecoya plava

plu ( before laG ) → plava ( like above ) luGlaG aplava

pac kartarizap paca

bhU kartarizap bhU + zap hardsoft bho + zap ecoya bhava

nI kartarizap nI + zap hardsoft ne + zap ecoya naya

zuc kartarizap zuc + zap puganta zoca

car kartarizap cara

There is also a plava- nounbase that means "a boat".


nAyi, kAri, pAci, cori, cintimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1495

These are examples of roots made by adding Nic after another root.

Any root can get Nic by hetumatica, and in that case the meaning changes --

nI "carry" + causative Nic acoJNiti nai + Nic ecoya nAyi "make others carry"

kR "do" + Nic acoJNiti kAri "make others do"

pac "cook" + Nic ata::upa pAci "make others cook"

The Nichclass roots, such as cur, always get Nic by satyApa, and do not change meaning. --

cur "steal" + Nichclass Nic puganta cori "steal"

cint "think" + Nichclass Niccinti "think"

These can also get the causative Nic instead of the Nichclass Nic, but that is rare.

A Nichclass roots, such as cur, may also get the Nic that means "make others do" --

cur "steal" + causative Nic puganta cori "make others steal"

but that seldom happens in practice. If you hear corayati, the chances of it meaning "steals" are far far higher than the chances of it meaning "makes others steal".

As these nAyi, kAri, pAci, cori are all roots (rule sanAdyantA says so), and they do not belong to any verb class, they get zap when kartarizap says so --

nAyi + laT tipnAyi + zap + ti hardsoft nAye + a + ti ecoya nAyayati "makes others lead"

cori + laT tipcori + zap + ti hardsoft core + a + ti ecoya corayati "steals"


juhu bibhI dadA mimA bibhR jahAmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1496

The zluclass roots (like hu and bhI) get zlu when right before a doer affix that is hard (such as mas, tip or zatR). Some examples --

hu + zlu zlau hu + hu + zlu kuhozcuH juhu

bhI + zlu zlau bhI + bhI + zlu hrasvaH bhibhI abhyAsecarca bibhI

dA + zlu zlau dA + dA + zlu hrasvaH dadA

mAG' + zlu zlau mA + mA + zlu bhRJAmit mimA

bhR + zlu zlau bhR + bhR + zlu bhRJAmit bhi + bhR → .. → bibhR

hA + zlu zlau hA + hA + zlu hrasvaH hahA kuhozcuH jahA

These will behave differently before the Git and the aGit. Before the aGit affixes we get hardsoft as usual --

juhu + mip hardsoft juhomi "I pour"

bibhI + mip hardsoft bibhemi "I am afraid"

dadA + mipdadAmi "I give"

bibhR + tipbibharti "carries"

but the other verb endings are Git because of hard apit is Git , so there is no hardsoft there

juhu + masjuhumas "we pour"

bibhI + masbibhImas "we are afraid"

also, mimA dadA lose their A by znAbhya --

mimA + te''' IhalyaghoH mimIte "he measures"

dadA + mas znAbhya dadmas "we give"


about rundh and runadhmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1497

Before hard doer affixes, the znamclass root rudh turns into either rundh or ruNadh.

If the affix is aGit, the a of (z)na(m) stays, and Natvam works --

rudh + laT miprudh + znam + mi midaco runadh + mi Natvam ruNadhmi "I obstruct"

If the affix is Git, znasora eats the a, placing the n right before dh, and then there is no Natvam before serious --

rudh + laT masrudh + znam + mas midaco runadh + mas znasora rundh + masrundhmas "we obstruct"

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