footnotes 2 ←

chunk 73: footnotes 3

→ footnotes about labels

about vibhakti affixes
how to find out the class of a verb
about yad-
verb classes
sup-ender is noun.
tiG-ender is verb.
unchanging has neither sup nor tiG.
non-third person liT is VERY uncommon
Am'' summary
Which roots get Am''
replacing with guNa
soft liG is quite useless
About the uNAdi affixes.
auxiliary roots
About accents.
rules that delete root nasal
the auxiliary as is not replaced with bhU
Metri causa means "to make the verse fit".
epics have oddities.
about hidden words
Accent rules are only applied when reciting the veda.
Extralong is a vowel longer than a long.
Natvam works across some word boundaries.
No Natvam before serious.
about kta
about ktavatu
About jJApaka
formation of lRG
Spelling of o before deleted a.
kaNDvAdi list
About hangers.
types of affixes
about iSThan
rules that delete the calling
MCM, sandhi of as As s
sandhi of true r
about meaning the doer or not meaning the doer
Accurate translation of nazchavya.
replace with guNa
changes before benedictive
different kinds of nothing


about vibhakti affixesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1316

There are two groups of vibhakti affixes --

The prAgdizIya affixes are vibhakti affixes, by rule prAgdizovibhaktiH

The sup and tiG affixes are vibhakti too, by rule vibhaktizca.

Several rules work on vibhakti affixes, such as aSTana::A, tyadAdInAmaH, navibhaktautusmAH.


how to find out the class of a verbmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1317

To find out the class of a ROOT, look the root up in a dictionary.

For instance, when you type ji into the auroville dictionary, it should tell you that it is a "cl 1" (class one verb, meaning a zapclass), that the present is yajati or jayate, and that it means to win or conquer or defeat.

Do NOT type ji into inria reader! That one does not understand roots. But you can use the "Stemmer" link at the bottom of the reader page to get to a place where you can type ji.

To find out the class number of a verb, type it into inria reader.

If you typed a laT, laG, loT, hard liG that means the doer (for instance jayati), the hovertext of the verb will show " [1] " meaning that this jayati form has zap inside, therefore its root ji is a zapclass root.

If you type some other tense, for instance jeSyati, it will not show the " [1] ", but it will tell you that the root is ji, and you can click the ji to find the class.

You may also type the verb into auroville.

And, if you can read devanAgarI, you may also type the verb into hyderabad's morphological analyzer tool.


about yad-mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1318

The pronoun yad- means "the one that, the one which, the one who, who, he who". As in --

yas tarati nadIm "the one that crosses river..."

When yad- agrees with azva-, translate both words as "the horse that, the horse which, the horse who" --

azvo yas tarati nadIm "the horse that crosses river..."

When the horse is given second ending by the verb, the yad- gets second too --

azvaM yam apazyam "the horse that I saw..."

even where there is no horse word in the sentence --

yam apazyam "the one I saw..."

in that example yad- got to be masculine because the speaker is thinking of a horse. If the speaker is thinking of a mare the yad- gets feminine gender --

yAm apazyam "the one I saw..."

and same thing if the mare is mentioned --

yAm azvAm apazyam "the mare I saw..."

When the yad- has other endings, we have to be careful to translate the ending in front of the "which", never in front of "the one". As in --

azvena yena "the horse with which"

azvAya yasmai "the horse at which"

azvAd yasmAt "the horse from which"

azvasya yasya "the horse whose"

azve yasmin "the horse on which"

For English speakers, the yad- pronouns are hard to get used to. The important thing about learning them is that you should never try to translate them until after you are comfortable with the several forms of the tad- idam- kim- pronouns. To help with that, I made this drilling gadget --

masculine singular pronouns drill

Hope it works.


verb classesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1319 vikaraNa

The roots listed in the dhAtupATha are divided into ten goups called verb classes. These are the numbers of the ten verb classes, the affix that their roots get, the name of the class, and the rule that adds the affix --

[1] zap zapclass kartarizap

[2] luk lukclass adiprabhRtibhyazzapaH

[3] zlu zluclass juhotyAdibhyazzluH

[4] zyan zyanclass divAdibhyazzyan

[5] znu znuclass svAdibhyazznuH

[6] za zaclass tudAdibhyazza

[7] znam znamclass rudhAdibhyazznam

[8] u uclass tanAdikR

[9] znA znAclass kryAdibhyazznA

[10] Nic Nichclass satyApa

These ten affixes are called vikaraNa affixes by grammarians other than pANini.

Rules one to nine above only work when the root is right before a hard doer affix. Rule ten, however, ALWAYS adds Nic, no matter what is afterwards. If what is afterwards is a hard doer affix, the Nic becomes aya because of kartarizap and ecoya.

The lukclass roots do not get luk affix; I use the word luk in the list to mean that they get no affix at all.

When you type dveSTi, zRNoti, pacanti etc into inria reader, it will show [2] [5] [1] etc to mean that dveSTi [2] has no affix, zRNoti [5] has znu, pacanti [1] has zap. And pacyante gets no number because it has yak, which is none of the above.

See also how to find out the class of a verb .

zab luk chlu zyaJ chnu za znaJM ca | u znA Nic pratyayA daza ||

"zap luk zlu zyan znu za and znam u znA Nic are the ten affixes"


sup-ender is noun.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1320

When I say " noun", I mean sub-anta "whatever ends in a sup".

Some examples of nouns, with the sup they have. What is before the sup is either a nounbase, or a nounbase with a feminine affix added at the end.

azva- + suazvas "horse"

azvA- + su halGyA azvA "mare"

vidyut- + su halGyA vidyut "lightning"

zveta- + suzvetas "white"

dRSTa- + au vRddhireci dRSTau "both were seen"

kRtavatI- + su halGyA kRtavatI "she made"

kramamAna- + TA TAGasi kramamAna- + ina Natvam kramamANena "with (someone) that walks"

Notice that you cannot trust the translation of a sentence to know if something is a noun or not. In azvazH zvetaH plutavAn "the white horse jumped", all three words are nouns, even though the translations of two of them would not be called "nouns" in english grammar. A better test for nounhood is dropping your word into inria reader. If inria paints it blue it is a noun. If yellow and blue or yellow and cyan it is a compound noun. If inria shows both blue and red you are out of luck, sorry.


tiG-ender is verb.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1321

Whatever has a tiG at the end is a verb (in Sanskrit: tiGanta). Examples --

pac + laTpac + tippaca + tippacati "he cooks"

pac + laGpac + tippaca + tip luGlaG apaca + tipapaca + t'''apacat "he cooked"

as + laGas + tipas + t''' ADajAdInAm As + t astisico As + ItAsIt "he was"

cint + liTcint + tascint + atuscint + Am'' + atus → .. → cintayAmAsatus "the two of them thought"

Please remember that whatever "feels" verbish because it translates into an English verb won't be a verb if it does not have a tiG at the end. So there is not a single verb here --

plavamAnA nadIGM gatvA bhekA dRSTAs tadA mayA "then I went to the river and saw jumping frogs"

even though three of the words have a verb root inside and mean an action.

To test a word for verbhood, drop it into inria. Inria will paint it red and tell you which tiG it has. Well, unless it's an Am'' verb like cintayAmAsatuH, then inria paints the cintayAm orange and the Asatus red.


unchanging has neither sup nor tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1322

An old jingle goes, vacaneSu ca sarveSu yan na vyeti tad avyayam. Whatever word does not change is an unchanging.

Sanskrit words can be divided in three groups, that inria paints blue, red and pink --

blue -- nouns OR subanta ( sup-enders)

red -- verbs OR tiGanta ( tiG-enders)

pink -- unchanging OR avyaya

Blue are nouns, made by adding a sup ( noun ending) after a nounbase. We may add different sup to the same nounbase.

gaja + sugajas "elephant"

gaja + zasgajAn

Red are verbs, made by adding a tiG ( verb ending) after a root. We may add different tiG to the same root.

car + laT tipcarati "moves"

car + laG mipcarAmi "I move"

Everything else is pink -- unchanging.

Pinks either don't get a sup tiG at all, or always get the same sup. So they always look the same.

ca "and"

plutvA "jumped and"

plotum "to jump"

atra "here"


non- third person liT is VERY uncommonmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1323

The liT tense has been seldom used since the epics. And even in the epics, only the third person endings are found -- Nal atus us ez AtAm irec.

As all those start with vowels, they never get iT. Which means you don't need to pay much attention to the rules, such as kR;sR;bhR;vR;stu;dru;sru;zru and others, that add iT to the valAdi liT (namely thal va ma se''' dhve''' vahe''' mahe'''),

If we take seriously the parokSe limitation of the rule parokSeliT, it would follow that the second person liT may be used only when you tell someone about what you heard they did, but didn't see them doing --

rAkSasaJM jaghanitha "I heard you killed the demon"

And similarly, you can use the first person liT only when you talk about something that you don't remember having done or claim to not have done --

tanM na jaghana "I didn't kill him, that's just a rumor"

Frankly -- If you are going to use a first or second person liT, do not worry about the parokSe. Such limitations to the use of tenses have been mostly ignored for centuries.


Am'' summarymmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1324 Am''

These are the rules that turn cur + liT into corayAmAsa --

Rules kAs;pratyayAdAmamantreliTi ff

explain which roots get Am'' instead of liTidhA.

Rule AmaH

deletes the liT affix.

Rule kRJcAnuprayujyateliTi

adds that affix to an auxiliary then glues them after the Am''.

And rule Ampratyaya clarifies that two of the auxiliaries never get bent affixes.


Which roots get Am''mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1325

Rules kAspra ff explain exactly which roots get Am'' before liT. But summarizing those rules here can do no harm.

The rule-of thumb is that roots with one vowel get liTidhA, like kSip kR here --

kSip + Nal → .. → cikSepa "threw"

kR + Nal → .. → cakAra "made, did"

and the rest get Am'', like pAci, cinti, bubodhiSa --

pac + causative Nic + liTpAci + liT → .. → pAcayAmAsa "made others cook"

cint + Nichclass Nic + liT tip satyApa cinti + tip → .. → cintayAmAsa "thought"

budh + san + liTbubodhiSa + liT → .. → bubodhiSAmAsa "wanted to know"

(In those examples, the Asa is added after Am'' by rule kRJcA).

Now the exceptions to the general rule.

(1) UrNu has two vowels, but gets no Am'' --

UrNunAva "he covered"

UrNunuvus "they covered"

(2) day ay kAs As have one vowel, but get Am'' (see dayAyA for examples)

(3) So do the one-vowelers that start with a heavy vowel that is not A a (see ijAdezca for examples).

(4) And these roots make their liT both ways --

bhI hrI bhR hu (see bhIhrI)

uS vid jAgR daridrA (see uSavida)


replacing with guNammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1326

Replacing with guNa works like this:

change i I into e

change u U into o

change R RR into ar

change L into al

Replacing with vRddhi works like this:

change a into A

change i I e ai into ai

change u U o au into au

change R RR into Ar

change L into Al


soft liG is quite uselessmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1327

There are many rules in the grammar dealing with the soft liG, starting at liGAziSi, and they are quite complicated.

Do not panic about that. You don't need to know much about those rules, as the soft liG, nowadays, is used once in a blue moon when it is flat, and never when it is bent. It was apparently used in vedic times, and in pANini 's times.

The soft liG may be used only to express wishes. But when you need to express wishes, you should really use the hard liG or the loT instead.

dIrghAyur bhava "may you live long"


About the uNAdi affixes.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1328

Short explanation: the uNAdi affixes are affixes that are not mentioned in the pANini rules. Most of them have been invented by other grammarians. You do not need to learn them.

Now the long explanation.

Many Sanskrit nounbases are formed by adding kRt affixes after roots. For instance, nAyakas means leader, and matayas means "opinions, what someone thinks". These meanings are "explained" by saying that nAyakas somehow "comes from" the root nI "lead" with the affix Nvul added (and su, of course), then matayas comes from man "think" with ktin (and jas).

Most of the affixes mentioned in the rules are quite useful, in the sense that what they can help to explain the meanings of many words. For instance, rule NvultRcau tells us that all roots can get Nvul, from which we deduce that we may say AnAyakas, pAcakas, zocakas for "bringer", "cooker", "mourner" and so on and so on. darvi

Others are less useful, like ktin, that is added only to some roots, or snaJ, that is added to pums only.

The uNAdi affixes are affixes invented by other grammarians before and after pANini. They are collected in works called uNAdi-sUtras, and most of them can be added only to a few roots. An example of that would be jAgRvi-, meaning "watchful" or "awake". As this nounbase appears to have something to do with the root jAgR "wake up", but cannot be explained by any of the affixes mentioned in the pAnini grammar, some grammarinas added a vi affix to the uNAdi affix lists, just to tell other grammarians that "jagRvi- is a good word even though pAnini does not say so.

As you can use a dictionary to check that jAgRvi- is okay, you don't need to know anything about the uNAdi affixes. Maybe the guys that make the dictionaries do.


auxiliary rootsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1329

The auxiliary roots are kR, bhU and as.

Sometimes they are used to make auxiliary verbs such as cakAra, babhUva, bhavati, Asa, karoti and so on.

These verbs are called auxiliary verbs when they are used as if they were affixes. This only happens after Am'' and cvi.

Example after cintayAm (am Am''-ender) --

cakAra when used alone means "he did" or "he make", and is not an auxiliary verb. It is made from kR + liT.

cintayAJMcakAra means "he thought". The cakAra inside it is an auxiliary verb.

Example after mRdU (a cvi-ender) --

bhavati alone means "is", and is not an auxiliary.

mRdUbhavati means "becomes soft, softens". The bhavati inside it is an auxiliary.

karoti alone means "makes", and is not an auxiliary.

mRdUkaroti means "makes it soft, softens". The karoti inside it is an auxiliary.

The forms made from as + liT, such as Asa, Asatus, Asus, can only be used as auxiliaries, inside Am'' verbs such as cintayAmAsa. When used alone to mean "he was, they was", the liT of as is babhUva (by rule asterbhUH).


About accents.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1330

According to pANini, vowels can have three sorts of pitch --

(1) acute, or higher than normal

(2) grave, or normal

(3) falling, that starts at acute and goes down to normal.

Most vowels are grave. One vowel of each word is acute. The grave that comes right after an acute vowel is replaced with a falling.

pANini gives about two thousand rules that teach what syllable of every word gets the acute.

According to the saying apANinIyanM na prayujyeta , we should always speak Sanskrit with the pitches that pANini teaches. Yet, no one has done that for centuries, maybe millenia. The current custom in India is to ignore the accent completely when talking Sanskrit or when chanting anything else than the veda, and to carefully follow pANini's advice about pitches when chanting the veda.

This website assumes that you are not interested in learning to chant the veda. Just ignore all accent rules and pitch your Sanskrit however you like, or not at all.

Chapter 6.2 only has accent rules. I have translated one, namely In a longhorn , the former keeps its accent , just because the legend of tvaSTR getting an accent wrong is priceless.

An example. The affixes tavya and tavyat have the same meaning but different accent, because of the label t. As no one nowadays bothers about accent, we don't need to know anything about the rules that teach which roots get tavya and which roots get tavyat.


rules that delete root nasalmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1331

Rule that erases the final nasal of a root --

anudAttopadeza (makes gam + kta into gata-)

Rules that erase the nexttolast nasal of a halanta root, and exceptions --

64023 znAnnalopaH after znam

64024 an-iditAM hala:: upadhAyAH kGiti before kGit

64025 daMza;saJja;svaJjAM zapi before zap

64026 raJjez ca before zap

64027 ghaJi ca bhAva-karaNayoH raJj to rAga

64030 n' .AJceH pUjAyAm


the auxiliary as is not replaced with bhUmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1332

By asterbhUH, the root as turns into bhU before liT, so that as + liT jhi makes babhUvus, as in --

sarveSAM sukhamM babhUvuH "all had happiness"

Yet this only happens when as + liT is used as an ordinary verb. When it is an auxiliary, that is to say, when it is added after Am'', it stays as, and then we get --

as + Nal ata::upa As + Nal liTidhA A + As + a hrasvaH a + Asa ata::AdeH A + Asa akassa Asa

as + atus → .. → Asatus

as + us → .. → Asus

As in --

IkS + Am'' + as + NalIkSAmAsa "he saw"

IkSAmAsatus "both saw"

IkSAmAsus "they saw"


prohibitionmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1333

The particle mAG is used to forbid or dissuade. It can be used with a loT, where na cannot be used --

mA kuru "don't do!"

yet instead of the loT, the luG can be used. This luG will not get aT AT, because of namAGyoge --

mA kArSIH "don't do!"

if there is both mAG and sma, the laG can be used, again with namAGyoge --

mA sma karoH "don't do!"

By alaGkhalvoH, when the sense is "stop doing", we can use alam or khalu with a ktvA --

alam kRtvA "enough with doing"

We can also use a tumun, or an action noun with TA --

alam kartum "enough with doing"

alam zokena "enough with grief"


Metri causa means "to make the verse fit".mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1334

"Metri causa" (say that as metrI kausA, or just mc to friends) is Latin for "to make the verse fit" or "to get a better rythm".

This expression is used when Latin and Ancient Greek poets break some grammar rules to make the verse fit.

Latinists take good note: in the Sanskrit tradition, good poets are supposed to never breach pANini rules. So when a really really good poet like kAlidAsa does that, commentators will sommersault to find a good excuse for them.

Yet, the epics appear to be older than pANini, or written by someone that didn't care about pANini. So, you'll find egregious grammar breaches from time to time --

dharmAd arthaH prabhavati dharmAt prabhavate sukham

"wealth comes from dharma, happiness comes from dharma"

gRhya saJMjJAnM tato bhImo gadayA vyacarad raNe

"bhIma understood the gesture and started moving around the battlefield with his mace"

According to good grammar, prabhavate is no good, it should be always prabhavati, and gRhya should be gRhItvA (see lyap). Yet, many poets are, like, -- to make things sound good, screw grammar when needed.

Scholiasts of the epics will excuse ungrammaticalities like prabhavate and gRhya saying that they are ArSam "from the old language of the seers".

Coulson says that the makers of the epics composed Sanskrit "intuitively" with no knowledge of pANini rules. I tend to disagree with that opinion; in my view either the original authors had knowledge of pANini, or someone revised the original verses to make them agree better with pANini. But there's no way to prove either of us right, so forget I said anything.


epics have oddities.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1335

The word ArSam means "belonging to the old language of the RSis". Commentators of the epics sometimes use it to excuse any ungrammaticalities or mistakes.

Example. Suppose a zloka line has 17 vowels, such as janamejayasya rAjarSesH sarpa-satre mahAtmanaH. A commentator might, or might not, bother to comment --

akSarAdhikyam ArSam " the excess of syllables is a thing of the old language "

which boils down to saying "the extra syllable is not a typo".

Commentators do not always use that word. For instance, this line is a clear violation of rule samAse '-naJ-pUrve ktvo lyap --

sa gRhya ca kumAranM tamM prAvizat svagRhanM nRpaH "the king took the prince and went home"

But the commentary might just have gRhya gRhItvA "gRhya means gRhItvA".


about hidden wordsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1336

Suppose I ask "where did the squirrel go?" and I say "under the tree". If I say that, maybe my English grammar is not very good, but you will understand that I mean "the squirrel went under the tree", "the squirrel is under the tree", or "look under the tree".

If you are asked "did John catch the squirrel", you won't say "John caught the squirrel". The normal thing to do is skipping the words that will be easily understood even if missing. So, you might answer "he caught it", or "Paul caught it", or "he caught the moose", or just "yes".

English grammar is very picky about what happens when a word is hidden. I'm told that "under the tree" is bad grammar, and I must say "it's under the tree" -- replacing "squirrel" with "it". Sanskrit grammar, however, is not so picky. Same as in Japanese grammar, if a word is necessary you say it, and otherwise just don't say it. If you say this --

rakSe mayA zilA kSiptA lakSmaNena zarAs tadA "to the demon a stone was thrown by me, and by lakSmaNa arrows"

everybody will understand that you mean "by lakSmaNa arrows were throws at the demon", rakSe kSiptAH lakSmaNena zarAH . Here, kSiptAs and rakSe are hidden words.

The pANini grammar does not bother very much about teaching the right way to build sentences, or teaching when words can be hidden and when they cannot. The grammar is mainly concerned with the forms words take, and sentence construction is only mentioned when it affects the forms of the words, as in the rule object gets second . Yet, there are a handful of rules where hidden words are mentioned. Such as --



In those rules, the word sthAnin-, literally "what has been replaced (with nothing)", means "a hidden word".


Accent rules are only applied when reciting the veda.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1337 accent

It is abundantly clear that pANini thought that the accent rules must be applied when talking normally, in the laukika. And the ancient grammarians were of the same opinion. Yet, no one does that nowadays. The accent is heard ONLY in veda recitation. And that's in spite of the old proverb, apANinIyanM na prayujyeta .


Extralong is a vowel longer than a long.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1338

The extralong vowels, also called pluta vowels, are vowel sounds that are longer than a long.

Ther come in two flavours.

First, the extralong vowels of the veda -- some vowels must be chanted with a duration of three mAtrA. You know which because they are written as a long vowel, but with a figure 3 after them.

And then, those mentioned by pANini, used when calling someone from afar, or when angry, and a few more situations. These you can make as long as you wish. The lengthening is always optional.

Some rules that mention the extralong --

When you call someone from far away, rule dUrAddhUte says, you may make the last vowel last more than a long.

Rule kSiyA says that you can use sometimes an extralong when you are angry at rudeness, blessing someone, or giving several commands.


Natvam works across some word boundaries.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1339

The first half of a compound is always a word (by supodhA). Now, in some compounds, like grAma-NIH and zUrpa-NakhA and rAmAyaNam (rAma + ayanam), the r S R RR in the former changes makes raSA work on the latter, in spite of the same-word limitation.

There are dozens of rules allowing exceptions to the same-word like this one, but you don't need to worry about them much, because they usually happen in compounds, such as grAmaNI-, that you will find in the dictionary anyway.

These changes happen because fluent speakers will automatically apply raSA to whatever "feels" as if it were a single word. And expressions feel like a single word when they are used a often. So karma-yogena, a technical term not mush used appears intuitively to be a compound of karma "action" and yoga, because it is clearly a sort of yoga that has to do with work, while, on the other hand, grAmaNI- is a common word, and it just means "mayor"; if you use it every day you stop noticing that it is a compound of village-leader. Just like when we call someone Mr. Cartwright we are not aware that the word used to be a compound meaning cart-maker.

As words evolve from a compound to a commonly used word, there is no way to tell exactly when a compound will start to feel like a single word. The pAnini rules try to put some order in this, for instance, there is a rule that clarifies that we must say zUrpa-nakhA when we mean "that lady there with the nails like a basket", while when it is used as a proper name, Mrs. Basketnails, it is zUrpaNakhA.


No Natvam before serious.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1340

raSA will never change the n that is before a serious. So no N in these --

ramante "they have fun"

rundhate "they obstruct"

akSa + matup @n + zasakSavanti "that have eyes"

It will only work before vowel and funny. So it changes na into Na and nn into Nn, as in --

runaddhi Natvam ruNaddhi "obstructs"

ni + sad + kta Adeza;pratyayayoH ni + Sad + kta radAbhyAnni ni + San + (k)na Natvam niSaNna STunA niSaNNa- "seated; sunk down"

rAmante "they have fun" is built from ram + jha by rules before 83024.

Then rule 83024 nazcA works and turns n sound into M sound, ramaMte.

Now, rule 84002 aTkupvA cannot work, because it works on n only, not on M.

Then, rule 84058 anusvA turns M into n before t, so we're back to ramante.

And now, because of cantgoback, it is too late for 84002 to work even though r is still before n.

sukSmatA 'sti na tu drohaK kaz cin manasi pANineH "pANini is slick, but he ain't mean"


about ktammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1341

The affix (k)ta translates as "-ed" --

nI "lead" + kta "-ed" → nIta- "leaded, led, was led"

zru "hear" + kta "-ed" → zruta- "heared, heard, was heard"

kSip "throw" + kta "-ed" → ksipta- "throwed, thrown, was thrown"

The kta nounbases can be used either as verblikes, meaning "was led, was heard, was thrown" --

vismRtA kathA "the story was forgotten"

or as adjectives, meaning "led, heard, thrown" --

tat sarvaM vismRtA kathA "all that is a forgotten story"

In the feminine, kta gets Ap, by ajAdyataSTAp --

hanUmatA zilA kSiptA "a stone was thrown by hanumAn"

See also niSThA and tayoreva.


about ktavatummmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1342

The affix (k)tavat(u) translates as "did" --

kSip "throw" + ktavatukSiptavat- "did throw, threw"

nItavat- "led"

plutavat- "jumped"

(In these three examples, kGitica prevented puganta or hardsoft.)

The ktavatu nounbases are almost always used as verblikes --

zaraGM kSiptavAn aham "I shot an arrow"

zaraGM kSiptavAn tvam "you shot an arrow"

zaraGM kSiptavAn rAmaH "rAma shot an arrow"

plutavAn kapiH "the monkey jumped"

They can be used as adjetives too, but that's uncommon.

In the feminine, they get GI, by ugitazca --

zaraGM kSiptavatI durgA "durgA shot an arrow"

zaraGM kSiptavaty aham "I shot an arrow (woman speaking)"


About jJApakammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1343

Some rules have unexpected things, and it is suspected that pANini left them there on purpose, as a sort of hint that something weird is going on. This way of teaching is called jJApaka "hint".

Example. According to rule GamohrasvA, we have to double wordfinal G, N, n when they are between short and vowel.

Yet, in sutra iko yaN aci, we have a wordfinal N between short and vowel.

One way to explain that would be saying that pANini screwed up and forgot to apply GamohrasvA.

Yet pANini is considered holy, so if you ever say such a thing aloud in India, you lose your visa.

So if it is not a bug, it must be a feature. We must conclude that pANini deliberately failed to say ikoyaNNaci. Why? in order to hint something. In order to hint exactly what?

In this case, the best guess of the experts is that pANini, by not doubling this N, meant to teach "in the case of N, but not of n G, rule GamohrasvA is optional".

According to this teaching, you may, if you want, chant sUtra ikoyaNaci as ikoyaNNaci. Yet if you chant that way, you won't be teaching your students that the doubling of N is optional, so please don't do it.


formation of lRGmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1344

The lRG tense gets sya, as if it were lRT.

It also gets luGlaG itazca tasthas nityaGGitaH, as if it were laG.

Example --

pat + lRG tip syatAsI pat + sya + tipat + sya + t''' luGlaG apat + sya + t ArdhadhAtukasyeD apatisyat kric apatiSyat "it would have flown"

As in --

yadi zakunir azakSyat tad udapatiSyat "If the bird had been able to, he would have flown."


Spelling of o before deleted a.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1345


kaNDvAdi listmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1346

kaNDvAdiH ( 31027) kaNDUJ | mantu | hRNIG | valgu | asu | nasa | mahIG | loT | leT | iras | iraj | iraJ | uvas | uSas | veT | medhA | kuSubha | namas | magadha | tantas | pampas | papas | sukha | duHkha | bhikSa | caraNa | carama | avara | sapara | arara | arar | bhiSaj | bhiSNuj | apara | Ara | iSudha | varaNa | curaNa | curaNa | bhuraNa | gadgada | elA | kelA | khelA | velA | zelA | liT | lAT | lekhA | lekha | rekhA | dravas | tiras | agada | uras | taraNa | tariNa | payas | samMbhUyas | sambara ||

which is not the same as the list given by the kAzikA two millenia earlier. So, I'd say that you may safely ignore those lists and just guess there's a yak' when you hear anything like gadgadayate.


vargammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1347

Rule aNuditsa teaches that the abbreviations ku, cu, Tu, tu, pu stand for these five groups of letters ---

ku = k kh g gh G

cu = c ch j jh J

Tu = T Th D Dh N

tu = t th d dh n

pu = p ph b bh m

All grammarians after pANini call these five groups --






respectively. So they say kavarga "k group" instead of saying " ku".

Example. The kAzikA commentary under rule coHkuH "replace cu with ku" explains --

cavargasya kavargAdezo bhavati "replace cavarga with kavarga"

instead of saying coH kvAdezo bhavati as one would expect.


About hangers.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1348

Some short words, like ca vA eva iva, are called hangers, because they are always attached after another word. Therefore the expressions --

namaste "bowing to you"

siMhazca "and a lion"

athavA "or rather"

are always pronounced as if they were single words. Even though they are made of a normal word plus a hanger.

You may write a space before the hanger --

namas te "bowing to you"

siMhaz ca "and a lion"

atha vA "or rather"

In grammars, hangers are called "enclitics", which is Ancient Greek for "leaners".

Rule anudAttaM sarvam a-pAd'-Adau teaches that hangers cannot start a sentence, verse or half-verse -- they are always hanging after something else.


types of affixesmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1349

Some groups of afixes --

sup noun endings -- added after nounbases. They make nouns. Described under GyApprA.

azva- + suazvas "horse"

kRt affixes -- added after roots. They make nounbases. Described under kRdatiG

han + kta anudAtto hata- "(that) was killed"

tenses -- added after roots. They make verbs.

tiG verb endings -- these replace tenses.

car + laTcar + tip kartarizap carati "moves"

taddhita affixes -- added after nouns. They make nounbases. Described under taddhitAH.

gAvas + matup supodhA gomat- "(that) has cows"

samAsAnta affixes -- added after a compound.

mahat- + uras + kapmahoraska- "big-chested"

sanAdi affixes.

Some of these are added after a noun to make a root --

putram + kyacputrIya "want a son for oneself"

and the rest are added after a root to make another root --

vRt + causative NicvArti "make something happen"


about iSThanmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1350

The affix iSTha(n) means the same thing as tarap, that is, "most, -est" or "very".

tarap is much more common that iSThan, but iSThan appears after some very common nounbases.

Example of iSThan --

zreyas "good" + iSThan → .. → zreSTha- "best, very good"

See also priya;sthira.


rules that delete the callingmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1351

The s of the calling su disappears almost always --

After consonants, Ap, GI by halGyA and eGhrasvAt

After eG and short by eGhrasvAt

After feminine U by ambArtha and eGhrasvAt

Therefore, the s only stays after ai, au, and after A I U that are not feminine Ap GI U.

Those nounbases are few and far between. They are the ones that end in diphthongs, and the ones that end in a rootnoun from a root that ends in A I U, and a handful more such as zrI- and dhI- (a.k.a. the iyaG uvaG) and lakSmI-.


he gauH "hey bull"

he zrIH "hey goddess of wealth"

he dhIH "hey goddess of smartness"

he grAmaNIH "hey mayor"

The nounbase lakSmI- is weird because some say that the I is the GI and others say it isn't, so she hears both of --

he lakSmIH "hey goddess of wealth"


he lakSmi "hey goddess of wealth"


MCM, sandhi of as As smmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1352

The words that end in as --

Turn as into o before haz letters. See hazica for examples.

Turn as into o before a, and that a disappears. See atoro.

Lose the s before other vowels. See bhobhago

The words that end in As --

Turn As into A before haz letters and all vowels. See bhobhago.

Other words that end in s --

Turn s into r before haz letters and all vowels. See sasaju.

All words that end in s --

Turn s into K or H before k kh but not kS. See kupvo.

Turn s into F or H before p ph. See kupvo.

Turn s into z S s before z S s. See vAzari, stozzcunA, STunA.

Turn s into z before c ch. See stozzcunA.

Turn s into S before T Th. See STunA.


sandhi of true rmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1353

The words that end in true r are very few, and most of the time they look as if they ended in s.

The exceptions are --

before r, the ar turns into A (while as turns into o). See Dhralo.

before vowels or other haz, ar stays (while as turns into o by hazica).


about meaning the doer or not meaning the doermmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1354

Some words built from roots can affect the words that mean the doer or the object of that root, or be affected by them. Those words fall in two groups --

(1) verbs. Those built by adding a tense after a root.

Examples: adRzyanta, apazyat, svapiti, Aste, Asyata.

(2) verblikes. Those build by adding certain affixes (such as kRtya, niSThA, sat...) after a root, getting a nounbase.

Examples: dRSTa-, dRzya-, dRSTavat-, pazyat-, dRzyamAna-, Asita-.

These can also be divided in two groups: those that mean the doer, called kartari, and those that don't. The ones that don't, in turn, can be divided in two groups: those that [mean@ the object], called karmaNi, and those that mean nothing, called bhAve. Some examples --

(A) The following mean the doer -- apazyat, Aste, svapiti, dRSTavat-, pazyat-

(B) The following mean the object -- adRzyanta, dRSTa-, dRzyamAna-, dRzya-

(C) The following mean nothing -- Asyata, Asita-


The words in group (A) can come from any root. They take different endings depending on their doer. Their object takes second.

Examples with apazyat taking tip and jhi --

apazyad rAmasH siMhAn "rAma saw lions"

apazyan kapayasH siMhAn "monkeys saw lions"

Examples with dRSTavat- taking su and jas --

dRSTavAn rAmasH siMhAn "rAma saw lions"

dRSTavantaH kapayasH siMhAn "monkeys saw lions"

The words in group (B) come from objectful roots. They take different endings depending on their object. Their doer takes third.

Examples with apazyata taking ta and jha --

apazyata rAmeNa siMhaH "rAma saw lion"

apazyanta rAmeNa siMhAH "rAma saw lions"

Examples with dRSTa- taking su and jas --

rAmeNa dRSTasH siMhaH "rAma saw lion"

rAmeNa dRSTAsH siMhAH "rAma saw lions"

The words in group (C) come from objectless roots. They take always ta if they are verbs, or su if they are nouns. Their doer takes third.

Examples with Asyate --

Asyata rAmeNa "rAma sat"

Examples with Asita- taking su --

AsitaM rAmeNa "rAma sat"


Accurate translation of nazchavya.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1355

Elsewhere, I translated nazchavya as " wordfinal n to Ms before chav". That translation will work at least ninety nine percent of the time, but is wrong. The accurate translation is --

" ( Wordfinal) n to ru before chav (that is before am'), except the n of prazAn. "

You will meet the three differences between the accurate rule and the wrong rule once in a blue moon. They are --

(1) pANini said "replace n with ru", not "replace n with Ms" as I translated earlier.

Usually, this makes no difference, because, most of the time, ru is going to turn into Ms anyway. So, starting with tAn tarati, nazchavya will make n into ru, and then we get --

tA + ru + tarati anunAsikAt tAM + ru + tarati kharava tAMHtarati visarjanIyasyasaH tAMstarati

Which is the same thing as if nazchavya had replaced n with Ms. However, pANini had to say "replace n with ru", because the optional rule atrAnunAsikaH might also work. In that case we get --

tA + ru + tarati atrAnunAsikaH tA~ + ru + tarati kharava tA~Htarati visarjanIyasyasaH tA~starati

You will hear this A~s option sometimes in chanting, but it is never seen in print (outside the veda).

(2) The n of the word prazAn "calmly" is not affected by this rule --

setUn prazAn tAMs tarati "he crosses those bridges calmly"

(3) The rule won't work before ts --

ghaNTAz ca vividhA rAjan hemagarbhAn tsarUn api "bells of all kinds and hilts decked with gold"

aham IJIgo montoya yunaktu pitRhan tsarum "My name is Inigo Montoya. You killed my father. Prepare your sword."

This happens because the rule inherits ampare "that is before am'" from the previous rule pumaHkhayyampare. So the rule won't work before chav plus non- am'. As far as I know, only tsaru- "hilt, sword" and its derivatives (like tsaruka- "swordsman") start with chav plus non- am.


replace with guNammmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1356

When a rule says that something must be replaced with guNa, then --

i I turn into e

u U turn into o

R RR turn into ar

L turns into al.


changes before benedictivemmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1357

P581 final i u lengthen jIyAt

R after cluster and of R root to ar smaryAt

other final R to ri kriyAt

final RR to Ir ( Ur before oSThya ) kIryAt pUryAt

583 samprasaraNa

zAs to zis

584 most roots drop penultimate nasal srasyAt

P585 P591c some A to I others stay

dIya gIya

but jJAya dhyAya

same as changes before yak

P591b before yak , roots undergo the same changes as before the flat terminations of the benedictive


different kinds of nothingmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M+ C+ 1358

The rules never say "delete" or "erase". Instead of "delete a", they say "replace a with nothing". An example is rule atolopaH. The first word atas means "replace short a", the second word lopas means "with nothing".

There are different kinds of nothing.

Replacing something with lopa deletes one letter. When rule saMyogAnta commands "replace piturs with lopa", piturs turns into pitur.

luk is a more destructive sort of nothing. When SaDbhyoluk teaches "replace zas with luk", that turns the whole zas into nothingness. So paJca- + zas turns into paJca "five".

Worse still. If an affix had made its stem change letters, luking that affix will undo those changes. Example. Adding os after nAman deletes its a (by alloponaH), making nAmnos. Bat if that os is afterwards replaced with luk, not only the os letters go, but also the a comes back, and we get nAman.

Many rules replace with luk, such as svamor, ciNoluk, yaGocica.

Not so. When rule karmaNidvi adds am after the nounbase madhu, the resulting madhum is a word (by suptiG). After that, rule svamorna deletes the m, but doesn't take away the wordness. So adding am and replacing it with luk has had the effect of turning a nounbase madhu, into a madhu that is both a nounbase and a word.

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