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chunk 73: discarded lessons AND / OR random writings and summaries

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Summary of k G labels in tiG.
sa-compound confusion.
Doerless loT.
odds and ends

(summaryofkGlabelsintiG) (kG)

Summary of k G labels in tiG.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1386

An apit that replaces anything but liT and soft liG is Git by sArvadhAtukamapit.

An apit that replaces liT is kit by asaMyogAlliTkit.

All flat liG affixes are Git by yAsuT.

All hard liG affixes are Git by either yAsuT or sArvadhAtukamapit.

The soft bent liG affixes are usually neither kit nor Git by any rule,

but uzca sometimes makes them kit.

278 letters. -- 29000discardedlessons.bse 356 -- popularity 1

(sacompoundconfusion) (sac)

sa-compound confusion.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C- 1387

The compounds that start with saha- or sa-, made by rule tenasaheti, are extremely common. They never fail to make my students trip. So a few pieces of advice are in order --

(A) saputra- may always mean "and son", "and two sons", or "and sons", no matter the number of the sup affix that comes after it.

(B) saputra- always has the same gender, number and case of whatever word it links to.

Students always make the same mistake: when they hear devAsH saguravaH, they assume that saguravas must mean "with teachers", because guravas is a plural.

Yet, if there are many gods, we must always say saguravas no matter how many teachers go with them --

devAsH saguravaH "the devas and their teacher bRhaspati"

devAsurAsH saguravaH "the devas, the asuras and their two teachers bRhaspati and zuka"

devAsurAsH saguravaH "the devas and many teachers"

Similarly, when students hear viprasH saputraH, they asume that it must mean "the priest and his son". But in fact there may be any number of sons.

If you want to be specific and make clear that you mean many gods and with many teachers, you have to say --

devA$ guravaz ca "gods and teachers"

or --

devA$ guravaisH saha "gods with teachers, gods and teachers"

And if you want to make clear that there is only one teacher, say --

devA$ guruz ca "the gods and their teacher"

devA$ guruNA saha "gods with their teacher"

Now, some students ask: "why should I ever say devAsH saguravaH, when devA$ guruz ca and devA$ guravaz ca are clearer and not any longer?". The answer to that is, you don't HAVE to say saguravas. You MAY do that if you want. So don't use it if you don't wanttoo. But you will find that such sa- expressions are used often, particularly metri causa.

1310 letters. -- 29000discardedlessons.bse 360 -- popularity 1

(@impersonalimperative) (@im)

Doerless loT.mmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ C+ 1388

All verbs in Sanskrit can be used either personally (expressing the doer), like here --

pazyAmi zakunim "I see a bird"

dRzyate zakunir mayA "I see a bird"

or impersonally, without expressing the doer --

dRzyate zakuniH "someone sees a bird, a bird is being seen"

It is extremely common to use this dRzyate zakuniH expression to mean "I see a bird", "he sees a bird", "you see a bird", "someone sees a bird" when the context makes clear who is doing the seeing.

For instance, if I'm alone at home and you come from the beach, and I ask you dRSTaz candraH "has the moon been seen?", you will imagine that I am asking if YOU saw the moon. And then you'll answer dRSTaH "it has", or na dRSTaH "it hasn't", and you have no need to say mayA because I know that you are speaking about yourself.

This can be very perplexing until you get used to it.

It is even more perplexing when the loT tense is used impersonally. These are four commands that express the doer --

gaccha nadIm "go to the river! (addressing one person)"

gacchata nadIm "go to the river! (addressing many)"

gacchatu nadIm "let him go to the river!"

gacchAma nadIm "let's go to the river!"

and any of them may (and will often) be replaced with the impersonal command --

gamyatAnM nadI "let the river be gone to"

This "let the river be gone to" sounds awkward in English, but the original ganyatAm is very natural Sanskrit. So, translators are advised to avoid that exact grammatical translation. Instead, translate gamyatAm as "go!" or "let him go" or "let's go!", whatever it means.

1178 letters. -- 29000discardedlessons.bse 473 -- popularity 2

624 /ghu {mA sthA gA pA jahAti sA} to !I before consonant /kGit @soft.

(oddsandends) (od)

odds and endsmmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ 1389










about some sanskrit works

spelling and reading

special roots

special nounbases

special words

pronoun tables

websites about Sanskrit

Transliteration schemes for Sanskrit.

some books

miscellaneous links

yuSmad- asmad- tables

manuscript spelling

some videos

next pages for chris

354 letters. -- 29000discardedlessons.bse 912 -- popularity 1

1 contents

(/sandhi) (/sand)

sandhimmmmmmmmm glosses glosses ^ M- C+ 1390

The word sandhi (correctly spelled: sandhi), in plain Sanskrit, means "joining".

In Sanskrit grammar jargon, sandhi means the changes of sound that happen when joining words.

In English grammar jargon, sandhi means the changes of sound that happen when joining words (see Wikipedia on Sandhi).

Example of sandhi in English.

If you say "iced ink" inside a sentence at normal talking speed, it is likely that you'll end up saying "I stink".

English grammarians say that the pronunciation "I stink" is incorrect and that we should always speak slowly and carefully to avoid it.

English grammarians also say that only the spelling "iced ink" is allowed, no matter how you say it.

Example of sandhi in Sanskrit.

If we make the words azvas and dravati into a sentence, at normal speed, we'll say azvodravati "horse runs".

Sanskrit grammarians say that the pronunciation "azvas dravati" is incorrect and that we must always say azvodravati.

Sanskrit custom says that we must always spell azvodravati, because that's what we actually say.

817 letters. -- 29000discardedlessons.bse 975 -- popularity 9

1 contents

124 What is before @weak (is a @word).

561 @Extralong and @nonjoiner vowels stay before vowel.

980 !n plus !z makes !Jz, !Jch, or !Jcch.

1406 manuscript spelling

1430 @Hiatus are two vowels in different syllables with no @pause in between.

1462 videos for kids

1578 @inria uses !H to mean !s

1594 fish pages manual

footnotes about labels ←

chunk 73: discarded lessons AND / OR random writings and summaries

→ reading guide